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Criminalistics: an introduction to forensic science. by Richard Saferstein. eBook: Document. English. Edition ; Global edition. Boston: Pearson. Criminalistics. An introduction to forensic science. 4th Edition. Edition Richard Saferstein, tutorials, pdf, ebook, torrent.

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Criminalistics richard saferstein ebook torrents

criminalistics richard saferstein ebook torrents

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In the 21st century, training in the classroom and in the field has become a pedagogical priority. In this regard, references appended at the end of chapters and included in the book's bibliography have guided my perspectives over years of pedagogical development — how best to pres- ent the wondrous workings of sapient brains to college students pursu- ing degrees in the behavioral sciences and now, forensic investigative 4 Analyzing Criminal Minds sciences.

I will persist in using "sapient brains" throughout the book to define the ability of our species — Homo sapiens — to act eventually with purposive, self-reflective judgments, and as a benchmark of the "reason- able man standard" in legal jurisprudence. Is there a quantifiable process to explain how violent criminal minds emerge from sapient brains — the same brains with the potential to nurture offspring and to be law-abiding citizens?

For compelling answers that square with cognitive neuroscience and evolutionary psychology, we must turn to the study of spectrum psychopathy which will comprise, directly or indirectly, the subject matter of all twelve chapters.

In the meantime, as students prepare for forensic science careers, optimal preparation sug- gests interdisciplinary training in the classroom. What has transpired in this perspective represents the new tools and improved products described in Part I, Forensic Investigative Science. In Part II, The Brainmarks Paradigm for Adaptive Neuropsychopathy, Chapters define and describe my paradigmatic shift into a lifelong adaptive version of psychopathy — a beneficial and restorative version — referred to as neuropsychopathy.

Peer-reviewers are not surprised at my conclu- sions based upon what we all see every day from sapient brains. Part II describes my cutting-edge paradigm of spectrum psychopathy, sure to kindle lively debate. The Brainmarks Paradigm is simply the next step in the understanding of this brain condition. Certainly, Robert Hare or Martin Kantor will not, in the least, be surprised by my conclusions.

From synergistic research alone, it is easy to document the contributions of brilliant colleagues, such as Hare and Kantor; they and numerous others are responsible for the evolution of spectrum psychopathy. Like- wise, from student autobiographical essays that finally hit me "like a ton of bricks" in early , the essays suggested elements of this paradigmatic shift as well. Four of these lightly edited autobiographies are included at the end of each of the four parts of this book.

You soon will meet and discover facts about the lives of Rachel, Sabrina, Lauren, and Cassidy — all survivors of highly disruptive childhoods and adolescences who are now pursuing college degrees. The time has come for the Brainmarks Paradigm. If this paradigm is perceived to be no more than a good idea that follows logically from what we already know about psychopathy, that is fine too.

My conclusions already have been reflected on countless times; they simply have not been systematically presented and defended until now. Introduction to Part I 5 The existence and essence of an adaptive version of ultramild psychopathy or my preferred term, "adaptive neuropsychopathy" as a natural brain condition will not be shocking, however, especially to scientists. To deny the ability of our sapient brains to survive and thrive would be to ignore on-the-fly adaptability inherent in the neuroanatomy and neurochemistry of our 2.

Sapient brains powered by awesome neurochemistry provide the launch pad to human behavior and social interactions for members of societies around the world. The same chemistry is responsible for the ability of sapient brains to fend off crushing despair thanks to nature's protective brain condition, and in contrast, across the continuum, this same chemistry is responsible for identifying the irre- versible and violent psychopathic personality disorder.

In Part III, Order Becoming Disorder, Chapters address the once widely embraced perspective of how criminality could be "parented-in" to offspring from "toxic" parenting and other damaging influences from peer and social milieus. Also, existing conditions of what now should be "parented-out" by informed parents are presented. The neurochemical basis of psychopathy is explored for both the adaptive version and the violent version, well-documented as psychopathic personality disorder. Chapter 10 begins by addressing a message in the famous poem "Richard Cory," and soon thereafter reveals aspects of the shocking murder and suicide of a mayor and her soon-to-be college-bound daughter in Coppell, Texas.

Chapter 11 presents two compelling essays. Chapter 12 concludes with a prescient look into 23rd-century forensic neuropsychology and the concept of "internal cortical prisons" created by brain chip technol- ogy. Will these technologies lead to the cessation of criminal minds, or will a new set of nightmares and challenges require new tools and improved products? Mayne, A. The scientist speculates. New York: Basic Books. This page intentionally left blank Chapter 1 Becoming a Forensic Investigative Scientist Forensic science is best described as an applied amalgam of both the physical and behavioral sciences.

Approaches, tools, and techniques of case resolution become truly interdisciplinary It is this eclectic and novel nature of the practice of forensic science that gives it such tremendous utility, and also appeals to the intellectual curiosity of those drawn to the profession. Lytle, res ipsa observation, director. Forensic Science Program, Marymount University The crime scene has its cast of participants: the perpetrator brings deception and violence, his or her victim brings life and likely losses it, and forensic investigative scientists bring skill, academic preparation, and interdisciplinary training.

Forensic investigate science is the science of crime scenes. When I applied elements of modern evolutionary develop- ment from genetics collectively known as Evo-Devo to advances in evolutionary psychology, characteristics of my new paradigm begin to « Analyzing Criminal Minds fit modem forensic investigative science like a glove.

Authoring several textbooks related to forensic psychology helped to fill in the gaps that would go beyond the creation of three forensic science labs to insights that would become my Brainmarks Paradigm of Adaptive Neuropsychopathy soon to be addressed. In addition to making various conference presenta- tions, often as keynote speaker, I authored numerous college textbooks as well as the widely popular FORS rubric of academic transfer courses.

It is my hope that students receive 21st-century training through interdisciplinary forensic investigative sciences — the focus of this book. In the 21st century, students seeking careers in forensic science now may enter academic emphasis programs as freshmen and sophomores; this is possible because of three interdisciplinary labs — crime scene investiga- tion CSI training and analysis FORS , forensic psychology FORS , and forensic chemistry or criminalistics FORS From to the present, I assembled college curricula with a variety of interdisciplinary courses beyond the FORS rubric, some with the PSYC rubric psychology , others with the CRIJ rubric criminal justice , and still others with the ANTH mbric anthropology — all assisting students early in their academic preparation for optimal cross-disciplinary training.

I cannot overempha- size the importance of multiple courses comingling and merging when educating 21st-century forensic investigative scientists. I am honored to unveil the 10 pillars — the new tools and improved products — of interdisciplinary forensic investigative sciences for 21st-century analysis of criminal minds. Who knows how many more tools and products will be forthcoming? With the inclusion of different academic disciplines in curricula that are interacting and merging to solve the real problems of forensic investigation, neuroscience increasingly will be at the center of solving cases and identify- ing and apprehending perpetrators.

Neuroscience includes the scientific study of the central nervous system, and tangentially, its peripheral aspects in the endocrine system of glands that produce an array of powerful hormones. In the 21st century, neuroscience has evolved into an interdisciplinary science, including biology, psychology, physics, medicine, pharmacology, computer science, mathematics, and philosophy.

Hence, neuropsychology — the science of psychology at the tissue level — has become a powerful and effective tool in studying molecular, evolutionary, structural, functional, and medico- legal aspects of the brain. We do know that the criminals and terrorists will be there. Similarly, across the state from the FBI Lab, Marymount University in Arlington, Virginia, affords students six hours of graduate work concen- trated in forensic science in the master's degree in forensic psychology.

This program allows aspiring psychologists, who have no criminal investigative coursework, to experience criminal case preparation from the criminal justice perspective. Professor Michael Lytle, now of the University of Texas, Brownsville, developed this crossover component that opened doors into vital internships at multiple public and private agencies.

For example. Professor Lytle recounts 10 Analyzing Criminal Minds the story of one of his best students who is now an international corporate lawyer in London. I tell current students she was just like them — a sophomore psychology major and criminal justice minor — sitting in Principles of Forensic Science dressed in jeans and a T-shirt.

She turned to the girl next to her — that girl later became a senior staffer at the Center of Missing and Exploited Children — and said, "Let's work together and make an A. When colleagues working as CSIs, medico-legal death investiga- tors, laboratory criminalists, criminal attorneys, forensic anthropologists, forensic psychologists, and criminal profilers share a common link to the new technologies available across disciplines, solving tough cases posed by smart criminals can depend on this interdisciplinary knowledge.

In embracing new technologies, 21st-century forensic investigative scientists are more likely to see commonalities and patterns in perpetrators and achieve the common goal of extracting violent criminals from society like a bad tooth.

The four parts of this text, including 12 chapters, address the 10 products of modem criminal minds capture, plus a new paradigm of spectrum psychopathy. Solving riddles at crime scenes is a focused adventure in problem solving. As novelist Thomas Harris stated, sapient brains appear to have a knack for it. We are inherently curious; we want to know zvho and ivhy? The oldest tool surviving into modem times asking "who and why? From 19th- and 20th-century police psychology, criminal justice protocols, a long history of autopsy reports, rigorous FBI research into known offender characteristics KOC from the s, and mainstream literary culture — specifically from the fictional novels of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle — criminal psychology has evolved as a viable tool of the investigative sciences.

It has come so far that the stereotypical "clue-hungry" detective is now considered old school. In the 21st century, the field of criminal psychology has evolved in courtroom proceedings as forensic psychology. Becoming a Forensic Investigative Scientist 11 The bar for conviction in criminal cases is beyond a reasonable doubt or more than 90 percent certainty of guilt.

This benchmark of evidentiary proof, along with insights into the perpetrator's state of mind, produced the well known pronouncement from judges to "Prove your case. DNA deoxy- ribonucleic acid analysis alone has become revolutionary in winning cases and, alternatively, freeing hundreds of wrongly convicted inmates as observed in the Innocents Projects created by attorneys Barry Scheck and Peter Neufeld. DNA evidence connects the accused to crime scenes. The 10 new tools and improved products of forensic investigative sci- ences explain why the perpetrator "authored" the "handy work" of crime scenes.

As mentioned earlier, criminal psychology found another pathway for expression in forensic psychology — the second new product. Appli- cable in criminal proceedings in the guise of expert witness testimony, forensic psychology includes a plethora of specific agendas, such as determining competency to stand trial, and procedural strategies in which practitioners are forensic amicus curiae that is, "friends of the court in forensic matters".

Advances in high-resolution brain scanning technol- ogy henceforth, neuroscans have been highly influential in this regard, launching the third product — forensic neuropsychology — which progres- sively has found a niche in criminal cases carrying the death penalty.

Neuroscans show juries cortical regions in high definition and in color- ful images indicating increased or decreased blood flow. Triers of fact must decide whether the neuroscans are merely descriptive or clinically diagnostic. Expert forensic scientists can argue either way as "hired guns. This new subspecialty merging psy- chology and neurology with legal standards dates back decades earlier to advances in general neuropsychology, which stimulated advances in medical technologies.

Forensic neuroscientists have made compelling progress in criminal minds analysis featuring the startling science of neuroscans — the fourth new product. This merging of neuroscience and medical technology provides evidence of a "diminished mind" owing to cortical lesions and cerebral traumas. Although an infant science, neuroscans provide grist to scientists debating descriptive analysis: what are the scans describing occurring deep in cortices of the brain? Do neuroscans show the workings of criminal minds in real time?

These neuroscans are on the rise as a new scientific ace up the sleeve of criminal attorneys. Always eager for new technology, this rising star in technology has hatched a neuroscience of 12 Analyzing Criminal Minds criminal minds with the new legal component of neurolaw — the fifth new tool — addressed in Chapter 7.

Improvement by revision highlights the venerable sixth improved product — Robert Hare's psychometric indicator of psychopathy The Psy- chopathy Checklist-Revised Hare's test has become the universal standard for measuring reliably and validly psychopathic traits worldwide.

Yet another rising star among new tools of 21st-century brain analysis comes from adolescent neurobiology — the seventh new product. The ado- lescent brain, young and developing, is a sapient brain typified by a dan- gerous paradox. Is the adolescent brain the breezeway to juvenile crime? Paradoxically, neuroscience tells us that young sapient brains are intent upon cerebral bingeing, observed in rapid proliferation of tissue, offset by the "pruning" back of seldom-used neurons in later adolescence.

Also, young brains seek to squash boredom of routine with new stimuli as a priority almost whimsically as though entitled to do so. Is this a normal brain condition? The adolescent brain is associated with a percent to percent increase in illness and violent death during that explosive pubescent growth phase. Also, producing bigger and stronger bodies accompanied by "amoral tunnel vision," the adolescent stage often becomes a behav- ioral nightmare for parenting.

Yet, with insights from interdisciplinary training in 21st-century technologies of adolescent brain analysis, perhaps high-risk behavior resulting from minimally performing prefrontal regu- latory control can be more effectively addressed, along with the knowl- edge of "what's really going on" in adolescent sapient brains. Directly from my acknowledgment page, "to listen more, learn more, and trust more" takes considerable courage and perhaps faith — a tall order for par- ents who must realize how important their influences are in providing yet another supportive layer of guidance over nature's gift of adaptive neuropsychopathy.

Largely because of the FBI's involvement in violent predator analysis and apprehension, the evolving art of criminal profiling — the eighth improved product — is inching closer to a higher bar required by the inductive logic of science — the "prove it" factor. In the 21st century, criminal profil- ing is used worldwide with increased accuracy.

Brain fingerprinting — the ninth new technological tool — is an applied product of electroencephalography EEG technology. Larry Farwell, the Harvard-trained scientist behind this applied technology, teaches Becoming a Forensic Investigative Scientist 13 technicians how to read brain "fingerprints.

In the technology of brain fingerprinting, lies cannot hide within a guilty brain. It is now clear that an impressive move is under way for forensic investigative scientists to understand pathological psychopathy evidenced by violence mixed with perverted sexuality. The move is away from traditional diagnostic criteria in psychopathology from DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders pedigrees in clinical psychology and toward paradigms of pathological psychopathy verified by clinical forensic neuropsychologists as a brain condition already known to underlie violent, cold-blooded criminality.

I address a monumental shift in the reconcep- tualization of psychopathy within the Brainmarks Paradigm of Adaptive Neuropsychopathy — presented in Chapters as the 10th and final new tool — sure to cause lively debate in academic circles. In the 21st century, deception detection and the realization of "what's really going on" in sapient brains have never been more important.

As evidence of biological predispositions from genetics continues to fill pages in neuropsychology journals, how much, legitimately, can be attributed to evidences of horrific parenting identified herein as predatory [toxic] parenting and discussed in Chapter 7? Lastly, what psychological conditions and behavioral manifestations might we expect to ensue from a brain marked by liberated "high gain" dopamine DA and liberated Norepinephrine NE chemistry as power- ful endogenous chemical neurotransmitters within the brain — what we refer to as "DANE" brain shenanigans of Chapter 9?

Have we become obsessed by criminal minds in a society saturated by a "culture of sexually violent crime," in which archetypical bogymen invade our dreams as nightmarish creatures? How much danger is really out there in everyday life? Before recorded history, misanthropic bogymen saturated our culture as malevolent archetypes. In the 21st century, forensic investigative scientists seek to know whether victims first trusted them as "engaging" individuals who, through deceptive practices, later exposed them to their violent and sexualized "dirty tricks," creating horrific crime scenes.

Perhaps the scariest part of this archetypical imagination is the fact that violent predators hide in plain sight as the majority of them do not look menacing. From literary pages, we delve into fictional novels for two prime examples of predators who invade our collective nightmares.

Nineteenth-, twentieth-, and twenty-first-century novels of fiction have shown a consis- tent commitment to the portrayal of literary misanthropes across a spectrum from psychopathic violent predators to nonviolent varieties who are scarred souls — tragically and emotionally damaged — but not violent. May they find redemption from the tenderness of others? Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and Le Fantome de VOpera — will show the nature of spectrum disorders such as the cold-blooded psychopath — Edward Hyde — to the psychologically scarred soul of Eric — the Phantom.

The Strange Case of Dr. Hyde The Strange Case of Dr. This duplicity represents respectability presented in the nurturing persona of Dr. Jekyll versus the impulsivity and conniving mind in the misanthropic Edward Hyde, deep into violent "dirty tricks" — and loving it! Hyde, written by Robert Louis Stevenson , is best known for its vivid portrayal of the duality of human personality.

Courtesy of the Library of Congress 16 Analyzing Criminal Minds As a mirror on moral character, the phrase "Jekyll and Hyde" has become accepted in popular culture to describe a person's hidden dark side, perhaps best described as a misanthrope — a person who hates other people or who has been consistently disappointed in relationships leading to palatable negativity and anger.

The novella The Strange Case of Dr. Hyde pierced the veil between the fundamental dichotomy of the 19th century's notion of out- ward respectability versus a hidden and fulminating inward lust, depicting moral and social hypocrisy, while providing yet another instance of a fulminating criminal mind. On the surface.

Jekyll is portrayed as an honorable physician with many friends and acquaintances; he nurtures his patients and his reputation by virtue of an engaging personality. Tran- sitioning to Mr. Hyde, Jekyll disappears and is replaced by a person who is small in stature, mysterious, criminal, secretive, sexual, and violent.

As time passes, Edward Hyde personifying pathological psychopathy grows in power within Jekyll. After taking the chemical potion that "released" Hyde in the first place, and henceforth repetitively, Jekyll requires it no longer as his demonic twin appears spontaneously — a prescient foreboding of the 21st century's neuroscience showing the relative balance or imbalance of the brain's potion neurochemistry behind the personality and behavioral characteristics of psychopathy and how it produces mental health, mental disorder, and violent criminality; it is how "order" becomes "disorder" addressed in Chapter When Jekyll's chemical cocktail that originally triggered his transfor- mation runs dry, he frantically scours the pharmacies of London seeking the same ingredients, but ultimately he realizes one of the original compo- nents had unique imperfections; therefore, the exact formula could never be duplicated.

Realizing he soon will be Hyde forever, Jekyll leaves behind a testament before committing suicide by poison — pointing out that while in Jekyll he felt charlatanistic, in Hyde he felt genuine, years younger, energetic, and sexual.

He stated in his final confession that although Hyde knew people recoiled from him, he reveled in their rejection; he felt no remorse for his violence — a cardinal trait of extreme gradations of pathological psychopathy. Andrew Lloyd Webber's musical version — the Becoming a Forensic Investigative Scientist 17 premier occurring in London — remains the most popular and longest running show in the history of musical theater.

In his original story, Leroux tells the story of a young girl, Christine, who is destined to be an opera singer and whose father, a musician, shared with her inspiring stories when she was a young and impressionable child about a mysterious "Angel of Music. Soon after his death, Christine becomes a member of the chorus at the prestigious Paris Opera House where she begins to hear a voice singing "beautiful music of the night. Thus enters Eric — the ghost or phantom — into the plot as a misanthropic misfit.

For some time, he had extorted money from the opera house owners as a pledge not to interrupt performances and scare patrons away. The phantom, therefore, is a threatening, nonviolent misanthrope in contrast to Edward Hyde's violent and homicidal criminal. Had Eric been violent, he surely would have faced arrest at all costs, rather than simply have been viewed as an unwelcomed nuisance.

For a brief time, Christine is influenced by Eric to live with him in his under- ground lair — the catacombs — where she is never physically, emotionally, or sexually abused. Eric nurtures and tutors her voice. Shortly thereafter, a romantic triangle ensues between Christine, the phantom, and Raoul, a recently renewed acquaintance from childhood. With the mounting possibility of "protective" violence for any interloper competitor for his love of Christine, Eric feigns a threat to kill Raoul and destroy the opera house unless she agrees to marry him.

However, a tender kiss from Christine pierces the veil of the phantom's misanthropic rage for never feeling loved — the singular gesture of affec- tion apparently overwhelms Eric to the extent that he releases Christine. With great ambiguity in her heart, she leaves Eric for Raoul. The mask worn by Eric to cover his scarred face is yet another metaphor of deception — hiding the dark side of his grieving heart.

As a misanthrope, Eric appears, at the end of the story, to have found redemption for his misanthropy by the simple gesture of Christine's tender affection. This provides a subtle hint of what may be possible for those feeling merely estranged from mainstream society. Eric may have developed a psychological conditions known as PTSD — post-traumatic stress disorder — from earlier abuses.

The fact remains: there is hope for Eric's type of misanthropy. In this literary license, is it a big stretch or small half-step? The violent psychopath Edward Hyde versus psychologically tortured Eric personifies further differences between spectrum psychopathy and DSM- inspired pure psychopathologies such as PTSD. For example, the nurturing physician. Jekyll, became the violent psychopathic Edward Hyde through a "chemistry experiment" — a metaphor for the endogenous variety that cascades in sapient brains.

Hyde grew to enjoy and ultimately prefer his alter ego; Hyde never suffered from a disorder. Eric, on the other hand, displayed a far different personality because of a lifetime of emo- tional scarring leading to rejection; he may have, through Christine, found redemption and a way out of his misery.

Might Eric find another woman to love him? It seems entirely possible. As literary misanthropes, Eric is miserable and sad in his psychopa- thology, while Edward Hyde is empowered and energized by violence and criminality in his pathological psychopathy. Big difference. Edward Hyde, empowered, invincible bulletproof , and callous to the feelings of others, flourished in his version of spectrum psychopathy, while Eric, miserable and sad, retained his hope for better treatment in his version of psychopathology.

New paradigmatic ground has been broken again with my Brain- marks Paradigm featuring the argument for adaptive psychopathy or neuropsychopathy. Careers in forensic investigative science are becoming the most important applied science of the modern world — a world filled with violent criminality and terrorism in all its forms. To those new to investigative science, the emphasis in this investigative field as CSIs , in criminalistics as laboratory scientists , and in criminal mind analysis as profilers and amicus curiae advisors is on behavioral sci- ence transitioning to forensic investigative science.

Homicide investigators, for example, have been trained traditionally in criminal justice as shrewd, clue-hungry detectives who leave no stone unturned; still, they have not been trained to think as scientists. That's changing in the age of neuroscience with scientific investigation on the Becoming a Forensic Investigative Scientist If front-burner. Forensic science is composed of various disciplines of study, principally criminal justice-inspired crime scene and homicide investi- gation, along with behavioral sciences of psychology and anthropology joined to the natural sciences of biology, chemistry, and physics to connect the zvhy in criminal minds analysis.

Imagine CSIs, homicide detectives, medico-legal death investigators, laboratory criminalists, criminal profilers, and forensic psychologists not cooperating in investigations — not knowing or caring what other disciplines offer in forensic investigative science. What if this? What if that? Criminal psychology and related disciplines offer additional information over and beyond the excellent criminal justice academy training to answer more completely "What if?

Officers do not confront solitary persons as much as they confront his or her brain — a brain intent upon survival; a brain that is, by nature, deep into deceptive practices. Is it ready to hatch a criminal mind? As a preview of things to come, the following prescient quote from Charles Darwin foreshadowed the fact that the future is now and right in our faces: In the distant future I see open fields far more important than research.

Psychology will be based on a new foundation that of the necessary acquirement of each mental power and capacity by gra- dation. Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history. Also, what is the role of brain fingerprinting? What needs to be known by CSIs who gather evidence in the field?

Would they "read" crime scenes differently? Should investigators know this? An interdisciplinary "tool kit" linked to other disciplines is advisable in securing internships as departmental cooperation puts investigators on the same page. To that end, all bachelor's degrees in forensic sciences should include the study of interdisciplinary investigative sciences. Forensic psychology, criminal justice, anthropology, biology and chemistry, and other tangential disciplines, such as "cybercrimes" units investigating cyberbullying, must reflect interdisciplinary coursework.

Mentioned earlier, we favor double major degree programs, or a collection of courses intermingled among various disciplines that offer corroborating advantages to students entering advanced degree programs. In this way, no one discipline is left out of the loop that might hamstring scientists in the process. It all starts with evidence collected at crime scenes. Investigative "inputs" affect decisions models logistics far in advance of authoring criminal profiles.

This syndrome evolved because of the general public watching a variety of CSI-related television programs. In this effect, jurors develop unreason- able expectations in real-life cases from evidence presented by forensic investigative scientists; jurors may wrongfully acquit guilty defendants when scientific evidence such as DNA evidence does not meet their television-inspired expectations, whether or not it is warranted in specific cases. In real life, evidence is often more sketchy and equivocal and seldom as "swift and certain" as presented in CSI-related programs.

Jury selection has been affected by this effect by asking potential jurors if they are regular viewers of CSI shows. Becoming a Forensic Investigative Scientist 21 In the pop culture phenomenon known as "The CSI Effect," jurors develop unreasonable expectations of evidence presented by forensic investigative scientists.

Jury selection has been impacted by this effect. Now potential jurors are asked if they are regular viewers of CSI shows. Photofest Criminology: Partnering with Criminal Psychology and Behavioral Psychology Criminology is the scientific study of criminals, penal treatment, and crime as a social phenomenon. Over the past 20 years, the rise of modem criminal psychology has affected analysis of the individual criminal toward a standard for clinical assessment of his or her mental "state of mind" at the time of the offense.

As an applied discipline, criminology per se has migrated toward a kinship with psychology and neuropsychology and away from criminal justice influences per se as in distancing itself from old-school "police psychology. For example, a CSI interprets crimes scenes differently with forensic psycho- logy academic training. Also relevant in the 21st century and inherent in special cases involving severe psychopathy evident in ultraviolent crime scenes "authored" by a violent psychopathic personality is the FBI-inspired investigative tool of 22 Analyzing Criminal Minds criminal profiling.

This technique is now an conrant in criminal investigation worldwide because of its increased accuracy. A persistent focus jointly shared by the expertise of criminal psychol- ogists as professors in academia, clinical practice, and research versus forensic psychologists practicing in pretrial, trial, and post-trial jurispru- dence courtside is this: Is the accused psychotic or in some way clinically disordered?

If not psychotic, thereby not meeting the standard for an insanity plea, how severe is the mental defect or disorder? Is it severe enough to claim diminished capacity? Instead, might the accused be faking psychosis and is in reality a violent, cold-blooded psychopath?

Criminal Neurology: Forensic Amiens Curiae For sure, the "smart practitioners in legal arenas" are forensic neuropsy- chologists — specialists who use brain-scanning technology This technology is a cutting-edge relative to Computerized Axial Tomography CAT scans from the s. Enter criminal neurology into jurisprudence suggested by this new breed of forensic neuropsychologists.

In the 21st century, mens rea criminal minds' intent is front and center in the gladiatorial venue of courtrooms in which a criminal's brain stands trial with the alleged perpetration by displaying his brain in high- resolution neuroscans. Judge and jury alike can view the colors — reds, yellows, and blues — from positron emission tomography PET scans that indicate quality of blood flow.

Retained by prosecutors or defense attor- neys as "hired guns" expert witnesses with special knowledge , criminal forensic neuropsychologists dazzle legal arenas providing evidence of dam- aged brains pivotal in influencing verdicts. Lucrative careers as forensic amicus curiae — "friends of the court in matters of forensics" are becoming commonplace. The late 19th century is a good place to start. In his notes from November 10, , he mentioned the sexual nature of the murders coupled with elements Becoming a Forensic Investigative Scientist 23 of misogyny hatred of women and misanthropy rage against people.

Bond continues: All five murders no doubt were committed by the same hand. In the first four the throats appear to have been cut from left to right, in the last case owing to the extensive mutilation it is impossible to say in what direction the fatal cut was made, but arterial blood was found on the wall in splashes close to where the woman's head must have been lying.

All the circumstances surrounding the murders lead me to form the opinion that the women must have been lying down when murdered and in every case the throat was first cut. Furthermore, Bond hypothesized the killer to be subjected to "periodic attacks of homicidal and erotic mania," with the mutilations possibly indicating satyriasis male hypersexuality.

The early landscape of psychological profiles from police surgeons turned "criminal psychologists" continued decades later when psychiatrist Walter Langer presented a profile of Adolf Hitler. Langer viewed Hitler through the eyes of those who knew him, providing eye-witness accounts of his behavior, accounts of which produced a diagnosis in absten- tia of a manic-depressive disorder the 21st century's bipolar disorder typi- fied by bouts of mania followed by periods of depression and paranoia.

In , Greenwich Village psychiatrist James A. Brussel , New York State's commissioner of mental hygiene, studied photographs of crime scenes and personal notes sent to the press by the so-called Mad Bomber — a serial bomber who terrorized the city for 16 years to The employee turned out to be George Metesky, who was charged with 47 separate crimes, including seven counts of attempted murder.

In , Metesky was adjudicated a "dangerously incapacitated person" and confined to a psychiatric center for the criminally insane. Later, Brussel wrote a book about his criminological approach, which caught the attention of a veteran police officer, Howard Teten of California. He and fellow BSU instructor Patrick Mullany added their expertise to Brussel's perspective by expanding meth- ods of analyzing unknown offenders in unsolved cold cases.

Soon, Teten, Mullany, and later Robert Ressler and John Douglas would foster insights into the criminal mind with criminal investigative analysis, characterized by inputs at crime scenes necessary for profiling, including logistics, decision 24 Analyzing Criminal Minds models, and crime scene assessment — all of which contribute directly to authoring the profile itself, followed by investigation and apprehension. Criminal investigative analysis from the s is the historical link to inter- disciplinary forensic investigative science of the 21st century Early Influences Inspired by Fiction Scottish author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle , in a series of fictional novels introducing his famous detective, Sherlock Holmes, demonstrated how early methods of police detective work eventually produced viable suspects.

Indeed, Sherlock Holmes inspired the creation of the 20th-century discipline of forensic science, especially by his minute study of even the smallest clues beginning with trace evidence from shoe impressions, fingerprints, and handwriting analysis, now known as questioned document analysis. Due to his slow-moving medical practice, Conan Doyle found time to write short stories, his favorite passion.

His first crime story, A Study in Scarlett , introduced the world to his famous detective 11 years before Jack the Ripper. Webs of Deception Perhaps Doyle's most popular crime novel ever. The Hound of the Baskervilles , displays the importance of observation, reasoning, and deductive reasoning also known as speculative logic. Astute criminal psychologists who are on the scent of violent criminals require an investi- gative mind.

Dartmoor, the physical setting of the story, is composed of moorland in Devonshire, England, featuring the Great Grimpen Mire, a foul-smelling swampland typified by thick and oozing quicksand. As the story unfolds. Holmes suspects that a web of deception is being woven by a clever criminal perhaps a cunning psychopath?

Holmes correctly suspects this unknown suspect will attempt murder by resurrecting the legend of a demonic, spectral hound. In any time frame reaching from classical philosophers to present-day investigators, deception is alzvays a central theme in criminal minds analysis.

This requires astute observation and deduction to unravel the mystery often spun by a brilliant psychopath — a cold-blooded killer. Holmes decides to disguise himself as a hermit living upon the moor, a ruse to help further the investigation.

The butler of Baskerville Hall, Becoming a Forensic Investigative Scientist 25 Barrymore, is caught late one night signaling someone by candlelight across the moor leading to yet another mystery. The butler is in fact signaling Seldon, a criminal and the brother of his wife. Along with Barry- more, she provides Seldon food and clothing. Ultimately, the most deceptive ruse of all belongs in the criminal mind mens red of Jack Stapleton, a neighbor of the Baskervilles, who pretends to be the brother of a beautiful woman to whom he is actually married and for a time is his co-conspirator.

Jack actually is the unknown son of Roger Baskerville, the brother of the recently deceased Sir Charles Baskerville, the wealthy owner of Baskerville Hall. The son, John Roger, becomes an embezzler of public funds, and later hatches a master plan by resurrecting the fable of the "killer hound" to dispose of the remaining Baskervilles and inherit his uncle's fortune as sole heir.

Holmes correctly deduced this scheme by analyzing a large portrait of Sir Charles that showed a remarkable resem- blance to Jack, especially through the eyes. Also, John Roger Baskerville displays the cold stare of a psychopath. Holmes's correct deduction turns the criminal case around as an early example of the powers of deduction and observation in solving difficult cases, a parallel to the work of criminal psychologists and later to criminal profilers who must imagine what most likely happened from evidence left behind at crime scenes.

Becoming astute observers to the smallest detail of CSI analysis comes with academic training, application in internships, and direct on-the-job experience. With training as CSIs, criminal psychologists make effective crime scene investigators, perhaps a trend in the making. Throughout Conan Doyle's long literary career as his medical, then later his ophthalmology careers failed , he became interested in mis- carriages of justice by reversing two cold case files that led directly to the establishment of a Court of Criminal Appeals in Britain.

But be fore- warned: there was a dangerous curve ahead. The potential for a gigantic misstep in the evolution of criminal psychology loomed on the horizon in the theories of Freud. Yet, following a trail of evidence, there can be no question; he became an early contributor due to his own deception. In one grand ges- ture, Freud set a new standard for deceptive practices; he was one of the most famous contemporaries of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

Freud was bom in , Doyle in ; Freud died nine years after Doyle in Virtually unknown to students is Freud's direct observation of sexually abused children in the Paris morgue and the aftermath of the reversal of his Seduction Theory Proposing that the mind held automatic repressions of unresolved conflicts in early child- hood especially of the oedipal complex variety — the supposed sensual or sexual attraction of young children to opposite-sexed parents , this theory provided developmental grist for those seeking answers to adolescent and young adulthood sexual misbehavior and, ultimately, sexual criminal- ity.

Would Freud's insight into the unconscious mind provide the long sought-after mens rea model for criminal psychology and in the courtroom with forensic psychology? Freud's theoretical binge on unresolved sexuality in oedipal complex was nothing compared to his Seduction Theory purge — the prime example of Freud's great deception.

Initially, his colleagues were outraged when they heard Freud's contention that parents may be sexually abusing their chil- dren. Recall that Freud's sexual theories resonated in Victorian Europe where all discussion of sexual matters remained strictly taboo. In , Freud theoretically professed that childhood seduction was the origin of hysteria and was due to early sexual traumas — "infantile sexual scenes" or "sexual intercourse in childhood" — in his words.

It was his belief that these early experiences were real , not fantasies — long-lasting and damaging to children. Archivists contend that Freud believed the sexual acts were forced on the children, often by a parent usually the father , and were not sought by the children. Upon graduation from medical school, Freud traveled to Paris, France, to consult with the renowned neurologist of the day, Jean Martin Charcot.

There, in the Paris morgue, Freud observed evidence of severe sexual abuse in some of the deceased children, thereby adding fuel to his theory of seduction. Immediately, Freud suspected childhood sexual abuse might be more rampant than imagined; if so, it could lead to death or permanent psychological neurosis — a condition referred to as hysteria.

Upon hearing this news, colleagues begin to distance themselves from Freud. Sexual abuse by parents was just too outrageous. What transpired in aftermath was this: Freud reversed his Seduction The- ory by stating that sexual behavior between parent and their children was not real: just imagined.

His clear act of deception changed the course of his life and transformed his theory into a worldwide movement. Although Freud observed the sexual abuse with his own eyes, many critics, including the former director of the Freudian archives, Jeffery Masson, believe that Becoming a Forensic Investigative Scientist 27 Freud reversed his position and abandoned his Seduction Theory to save his reputation and his hallowed place in the Founder's Club of Psychology Masson, Modern archivists consider the Seduction Theory reversal to be the cornerstone of psychoanalysis.

In other words, even though his reversal was contrary to what he observed, his theories became famous for show- ing the strength of imagination. Could imagination alone psychologically cripple a person, leading to severe emotional trauma? This became Freud's mantra of belief. Ironically, by admitting error in his original theory what he observed with his own eyes and attributing the experience to fantasies of sexual seduction, psychoanalysis became an international movement. This singular event occurred in However indirectly, the reversal was tainted by deception and fraud.

Freud accomplished a rare feat by showing the power of imagination and fantasy in driving violent, sexual crime. In this convoluted way, it can be proposed that Freud was an early contributor to what would become forensic psychology. As a sidebar, obsessive and compulsive his entire life, when Freud neared death, he had prearranged with his physician to administer an overdose of morphine — an instance of euthanasia easy death — upon consultation with his beloved daughter, Anna.

The deceptive stoic remained in control of his life until the bitter end. Upon death, Freud's body was cremated and his ashes were deposed in a Grecian urn, a present given him by Marie Bonaparte. By following the Holmesian pathway of dogged investigation using gathered evidence, instead of the Freudian perspective of unconscious conflicts, early criminal psychologists connected criminal mens rea with crime scene evidence pointing to the identity of the offender suggested in the fiction of Conan Doyle and moved away from unconscious influences of behavior suggested by Freud.

Ironically, through deception, Freud contributed to the power of the imagination, fantasies, and deception as the fuse to sexually psychopathic crime. Had early trailblazers taken the pathway suggested by Freud — and his theory of unconscious mind and its "complexes" erupting from past repressions, clearly a nonscientific perspective — imagine the confusion and misdirection of the new science of forensics, especially forensic psychology.

But another dangerous curve was ahead. And the next fork in the road was just as critical for the evolution of criminal psychology as a precursor to forensic psychology and onward to forensic investigative science. That necessary path would be behavioral psychology, better known to the world as behaviorism. This proved to be a theoretical departure from Freud and his reliance on the unconscious mind ascertainable through dream analysis.

Taking the behavioral pathway and analyzing observable behavior suggested by the behaviorism of John B. Watson and later by the behavioral connectionism of Edward Thorndike, and still later with instrumental and purposive learning of Edward Tolman and operant conditioning by B. Skinner, insistence on observation and objectivity in the analysis of behavior aligned criminal psychology with natural science.

The continued evolution of modem criminal psychology and later to forensic neuropsy- chology was absolutely critical along this pathway, without which we have no empirical science of sexually psychopathic serial homicide. A somewhat distant relative to classical and instrumental behaviorism, cognitive-behavioral psychology emerged in the s as a bridge from learned behavioral habits and patterns to deviant thinking patterns cognitive map- ping as the fuse to the "boiling and scheming" criminal mind.

This fuse ultimately exploded into violent "acting out" behavior in the commonly used expression "he just snapped" , which soon would be addressed and brilliantly analyzed in the s by Samenow and Yochelson.

During the s and s, dysfunctional parental upbringing was con- nected to subsequent juvenile delinquency as cognitive mapping powerful thinking maps of behavior of the criminal mind was applied to criminal investigation. Samenow, along with colleague Dr. For decades following this research, many state correctional facilities and emerging clinical forensic psychologists involved in the criminal justice system adopted insights from Samenow and Yochelson.

Essentially, they uncovered cognitive distortions in thinking that neces- sitated gradual eradication to reverse criminal behavior, a position that remains embedded in modem criminology and 21st-century criminal psychology. As time has shown, some thinking patterns are more resistant to change than others, the prime example being psychopathy, which is viewed along a continuum spectrum with mild, moderate, or severe varieties.

In Chapters , spectrum psychopathy is presented in light of 21st-century forensic investigative science's cutting-edge paradigm — the Brainmarks Paradigm. This disequi- librium can lead individuals to change their beliefs to fit what they desire to do, rather than change for the sake of another's perspective as suggested by popular wisdom. By this theory, teenagers can become accomplished liars to hide evidence of doing the forbidden, just as spec- trum psychopaths become deceptive to fool others.

As a social cognitive theory, cognitive dissonance resonates throughout modern criminal psychology. Morgues are under the direction of forensic pathologists, not forensic psychologists and forensic psychiatrists. Forensic mental health professionals use their expertise in human behavior, motivation, and pathology to provide psychological services in the courts, assist in criminal investigations, develop specialized knowledge of crimes and motives, provide counseling, and conduct forensic research Ramsland, The psychological specialty that seeks to understand violent offenders, their methods, and their motivations, and that seeks to deliver accurate criminal profiling in special crimes falls under modern criminal forensic psychology.

In forensics, the living learn lessons from the dead. Casebook of a crime psychiatrist. New York: Bernard Geis Associates. Conan Doyle, Arthur. The hound of the Baskervilles. London: George Newnes. Cummings, Nicholas A. Eleven blunders that crip- ple psychopathy in America.

Darwin, Charles. On the origin of species by means of natural selection. London: John Murray. The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex. Festinger, Leon. A theory of cognitive dissonance. Gerber, Samuel M.

More chemistry and crime. Girard, James E. Criminalistics: Forensic science and crime. Boston: Jones and Bartlett. Good, I. Harris, Thomas. The silence of the lambs. New York: St. Martin's Press. Dark dreams. Martin's True Crime. Heilbronner, Robert L. Forensic neuropsychology casebook. New York: Guilford Press. Profiling violent crimes: An investigative tool 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Jacobs, Don. Sexual predators in the age of neuroscience. Dubuque, IA: Kendall-Hunt.

Sexual predators and forensic psychology. Psychology of deception: Analysis of sexually psychopathic serial crime. Langer, Walter. The mind of Adolf Hitler. Larrabee, Glenn, J. Forensic neuropsychology: A scientific approach. New York: Oxford University Press. Leroux, Gaston. Le Fantome de VOpera. Interview, Masson, Jeffrey Moussaieff. The assault on the truth: Freud's suppression of the seduction theory.

New York: Ballantine Books. McDonald, J. The threat to kill. American journal of Psychiatry, , Ramsland, Katherine. The criminal mind: A writer's guide to forensic psychol- ogy. Cincinnati: Writer's Digest. Samenow, Stanton. Inside the criminal mind. New York: Crown. Samenow, S. The criminal personality 3 vols. New York: J. Schweitzer, N. The CSI effect: Popular fiction about forensic science affects public expectations about real forensic science.

Jurimetrics, 47, Stevenson, Robert Lewis. Apr 8, by Eurasia Group. A briefing created by the Eurasia Group in the spring of Apr 6, by Dr. Apr 3, by EJ Blak. Short story by EJ Blak Topics: story, short story, dystopian, science fiction. Apr 2, by Huy Bui. This book consists of six imagined dialogues between a fictional philosophy student, Logos, and some of the outstanding philosophers and politicians at all times.

Topics: Civilization, Philosophy, Political science. Apr 1, by Vaidik Sudha. Yogic science Topic: Yogic science. This open access monograph argues established democratic norms for freedom of expression should be implemented on the internet.

Moderating policies of tech companies as Facebook, Twitter and Google have resulted in posts being removed on an industrial scale. Topics: philosophy, political philosophy, social media, mass media, law, political science. Apr 1, by Umair Mirza. Apr 1, by Taylor, Karen J. Mar 31, by muller, cleber. Mar 31, by freetamiebooks.

Ellen M Peters - Evidence based strategies for communicating with patients and consumers. Mar 30, by Jeffrey Cliff. Source: torrent:urn:sha1:de6bfdfca0daa54ddb8d0. Mar 24, by Danny "D-Boy" Wheeler. A science fantasy hybrid of science fiction and fantasy twist on the classic Cinderella story.

Tried to submit this to a magazine, but they decided it wasn't what they were looking for. Oh well, they don't know what they're missing, and their loss is your gain, folks. Topics: Cinderella, science fiction, fantasy, space. Mar 24, by David Kyle Johnson. Inspired by Stephen J. This essay will argue, by analogy, that science and religion undeniably are in conflict. It will begin by quickly defining religion and science and then present multiple examples that are unquestionable instances of unscientific reasoning and beliefs and show how they precisely parallel common mainstream orthodox religious reasoning Topics: Science, Religion, Stephen J.

Mar 23, by Jeffrey Cliff. Mar 23, by Tejal Pathak. For C learners. Topic: Computer science. Mar 21, A Science Report developed to investigate the impact of different temperatures on Brownian Motion. The theoretical and practical applications from my findings would greatly help scientists who wish to use temperature in their own experiments regarding thermodynamics and Brownian Motion , it would also help mathematicians who would use this data when forming equations regarding Brownian motion and of course it would be of importance to researchers who wish to learn more about Brownian Topic: Science.

Mar 21, by Black Krishna. Free flyers about many topics. Polite patriots can locally avoid arguing with their family, friends and neighbours about unfamiliar ideas if they can't just politely discuss them. Print and cut these cheaply. Share them everywhere so people can research on their own. This is a non-confrontational way to locally inform and empower everyone.

Want to beat the Topic: corona virus covid19 flu health people toronto canada america china italy world medical doctor Mar 20, by Danny "D-Boy" Wheeler. Another story I wrote--this one with Pokemon gijinka i. They're in a world that is a mix between Arabian Nights and future.

Since it's Pokemon related, it'll have to remain as a story and in fanart form. Mar 20, by Sakhani Baloch. Mar 20, by Jeffrey Cliff. Mar 19, by Livescience. Mar 19, by Jeffrey Cliff. Mar 19, by Iago Faustus, IcuDhara. It was conceived and commissioned by Iago Faustus "Faustus," a pseudonym and executed by the artist IcuDhara also a pseudonym. It envisions the transformation of an adventurous college coed named Pamela Rei into a being of living gel by a mad scientist, a transformation that Pamela finds quite liberating.

Topics: mad science, goo girl, gel girl, adventurous coed, medical experiment, adult comics. Technology-assisted epidemiological contact tracing solutions apparently clash with civil liberties: a survey, and a proposal.

Mar 18, by Giacomo Fabris, Andrea Nicoletto. Technology-assisted epidemiological contact tracing solutions apparently clash with civil liberties: a survey, and a proposal Topics: Covid, Democracy, Privacy, Technology, Computer Science.

Mar 17, by Ahmed Saead. Shared books Volume 1 No. Mar 14, by Dr. Skand Shukla. Skand Shukla, popular science, emotional illiteracy. Mar 13, by Jeffrey Cliff. Mar 12, by MPDMedia. Quarantine Humor, Comfort Food, and Games A collection of comic stories, puzzles, and good eating. Topics: humor, public domain, quarantine, politics, women, sports, romance, high society, science fiction, There are many essential presumptions in modern physics without sufficient reasoning untested by scientific processes.

Some of them are presupposed for consistency of a particular theory. Some theories are based only on presumptions. In some cases the successful particular theory is converted to a general theory by using additional presumptions. This leads to inexplicable paradoxes. The article discloses an analysis of basic presumptions and their alternatives allowing to avoid the paradoxes. Mar 10, by Ravi S. Main author Ravi S. Iyer created the eklavyasai.

Mar 8, by Dr. Topics: skand shukla, cholesterol, popular science, hindi. Mar 5, by MPDMedia. Topics: literary anthology, women, fiction, poetry, drama, non-fiction, travel, humor, gardening, religion, Mar 2, by Umair Mirza. Sufism or tasawwuf is an ocean without end. It is the knowledge of the Divine that encompasses the entire universe. This is something that exceeds description however everyone speaks of it according to their capacity of understanding and spiritual degree.

Sufism is profound love of Allah and abandoning all pretension. Sufism is the chemistry of the Mar 1, by Ari Sitaramayya. Topics: normal, discrimination, social construct, society, constructionism, constructivism, social science, Mar 1, Feb 21, by MPDMedia. Fiction, poetry, non-fiction Topics: literary anthology, Jewish, Yiddish, short stories, poetry, non-fiction, recipes, history, science Feb 20, by Jeffrey Cliff.

Feb 20, by Centenary Committee. Feb 18, by Jeffrey Cliff. Feb 12, by Jeffrey Cliff. Feb 12, by twendelken. The sky is falling! Feb 8, by DAV. Feb 6, by MPDMedia. PD Gazette - February A collection of literature, non-fiction, and poetry -- from the Old English humor of Chaucer to the Space Age sci-fi of David Mason -- pulled primarily from recent additions to Project Gutenberg's online library.

Topics: literary anthology, literature, non-fiction, poetry, humor, romance, history, vaudeville, botany, Feb 5, by Manjunath. Some of the unsolved problems in science are theoretical, meaning that existing hypothesis seem incapable of explaining a certain observed phenomenon. The others are experimental, meaning that there is a difficulty in creating an experiment to investigate a phenomenon in greater detail.

This article outlines several conjectures or open problems in various scientific fields. Feb 5, by Guillermo "Bill" Gaede. Over 20 years ago, unsatisfied with the explanations physicists provided for invisible phenomena such as light, gravity and magnetism, Guillermo "Bill" Gaede began exploring alternative models and mechanisms. His quest led him to conclude that all atoms are interconnected. It also led to his comprehensive rebuke of contemporary physics and science, leading to a new paradigm that relies on rationality and consistency.

The g enerally accepted explanation of the Doppler effect is that in t he case, when the source of waves is moving towards the observer, each successive wave crest is emitted from a position closer to the observer than the crest of the previous wave causing an increase in the frequency and, vice versa, when the source of waves is moving away from the observer, the arrival time between successive waves is increased reducing the frequency.

This statement is incomplete. It cannot explain the fact Topics: Doppler effect, physics, space, philosophy of science, energy, EM wave, space, sound, wave, time, Feb 5, by Jeffrey Cliff. Feb 2, by Mohib. Feb 2, by Andrew Quitmeyer. This is an informational packet for those wishing to visit or get to quickly know the unique strange place that is Gamboa, Panama, particular those interested in combining art and technology to study the amazing rainforest ecosystems nearby.

This packet includes a basic guide to many of the non-human creatures you will meet during your stay. It is very sim-ple, a bit prone-to-error, and sometimes downright wrong. Topics: animals, field biology, art, technology, bioart, bio-art, biology, art, science, digital, natural, The Coronavirus Papers unlocked: 5, scientific articles covering the coronavirus. Feb 1, by Various. The scope of the papers spans not only the 7 human coronaviruses, but up to 40 other Coronaviridae family strains.

The Ebola virus showed us that every study counts. Topics: study, science, coronav, coronavirus, coronaviridae, virology, virus Source: torrent:urn:shadff2dede08c58f5bbc5affd. Jan 31, by Bill Gaede. For thousands of years, researchers and theorists have proposed discrete particles.

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